Why cannot there be more than one eternal being (meaning that a number of eternal beings could exist together)?

Every being in this world except – God Almighty – is dependent upon God in its initial phase of existence in addition to its continuance. The doctrine of Tawhid implicates a single being which is independent, needless and the cause of all creatures; for according to the law of cause and effect and the logical inadmissibility of circular argument (dowr) and infinite regress (tasalsul), every entity is required to have a cause before it finally concludes at a cause which is independent and needless. As a result, the existence of several eternal beings in the sense that each one of them could exist independently is impossible. However, according to the ayahs of Quran and ahadith, eternal beings – other than God – do exist but are completely dependent upon God.

The beings of this universe are divided into two kinds. On one side is the being that is reliant on its own essence and is free from need. This being is named the independent being that which is the wajib al-wujud. The other kinds of beings are those who in and of themselves have no independence whatsoever and are in need of another being other than themselves and are entitled as mumkin al-wujud. In other words, when we explore the essence of a mumkin al-wujud, in and of itself it is ontologically neutral to both existence and inexistence and in order to morph out of this form it needs a cause other than itself, as opposed to Wajib al-Wujud Almighty who’s existence is necessary and is free from need.

In order to explain who is the first being and cause of all causes one must note that without doubt the cause of all causes is Allah Almighty, hence the being that has been there from the beginning is the holy essence of Allah. According to the holy ayahs and reason, in addition to being azali (being there from the very beginning), he is, for the same reason, everlasting and eternal as well; because the being that can be the cause of all creatures must lack even the slightest deficiency. This is because the prerequisite of deficiency is need and a being in which is needy is itself an effect of a more complete being. In this case if we claim that wajib al-wujud isn’t eternal and will perish, we have accepted that it is an effect and this contradicts God’s essence.

Can another being other than God Almighty be azali and eternal?

According to what we see in the Quran and the ahadith, it has been unequivocally stated that mankind does not perish after death; he transfers from this mortal and temporary world to the everlasting world and is provided sustenance from his lord. [1]
Moreover, the term “khaledun (eternal)” has been stated in numerous sessions of the Quran, whether it has been used for those who are eternally in Hell [2] or those who eternally reside in the everlasting Heaven. [3]

Therefore, based on the explicit assertion of the Quran, for sure, there are other eternal beings along with God Almighty but the distinctive element between God’s eternality and other beings is the essence of these entities. The dhat or essence of one is in absolute need (it is need itself) and calls for a cause from outside of itself to grant it existence, while the other being is richness and abundance itself; this means that if mumkin al-wujud can live for eternity, it will never take an independent form cut off from everything else. The need and contingency to a cause constantly and continuously accompanies mumkin al-wujud and its form of eternality depends upon an independent essence which would be God Almighty.
God Almighty is free from need because he is wajib and the origin and cause of all creatures.

However the real question is does mumkin al-wujud need a cause after coming into existence – as its continuance – as well as in the time of its creation? In other words, why does wujub bil-ghayr (necessity obtained through another) invariably shadow mumkin al-wujud?

To respond to this question, we must first realize the criterion as to why effects (ma’loul) necessarily call for a cause (illah)? If we are able to prove that the criterion of neediness and dependence is an essential element instilled in the effect, we can, then, deduce that as long as a mumkin being exists, it carries this need with itself; considering that the dhati (essential element) of an entity never departs it. In response to this inquiry many arguments have been presented, and each one of them calls for a separate discussion in order to be stated, explained and reviewed. However, the most accurate viewpoint, which belongs to Mulla Sadra, is that the reason for the neediness and dependence of effects on causes is imkan and not the aspect of huduth (temporal creation). By proving this theory, the dependence on causes for continuance and sustenance (baqa’) will be proven as well. On the contrary, some believe huduth is the principle basis of the neediness of a cause. Meaning that the huduth of an effect is the reason why it has to have a cause, hence an eternal being must be essentially necessary (wajib bi-dhat). Given this presumption this group of philosophers has wrongly perceived that an effect solely needs a cause in its initial stage of existence, as opposed to needing it for its continuance; suggesting that there are eternal independent beings alongside God. [4]

Mulla Sadra expounds the criterion for the neediness upon a cause using two expositions. The first exposition revolves around imkan mahuwi (essential contingency). Imkan mahuwi entails that Imkan is the characteristic of the mahiya (quiddity) in respect to it being considered in and of itself, outside the domain of existence and inexistence (min haythu hiya hiya), for it is this sense that mahiya is neutral to existence and inexistence and imkan is characterized as the neutral relationship of mahiya to existence and inexistence.

The second exposition is based on imkan faqri (existential contingency). The interpretation of Imkan faqri or wujudi is that the identity and essence of the effect, by itself, is nothing but need and dependence on the cause. Thus, effects – whether they are temporally haadeth (temporal) or qadim (pre-existent) – are dependence itself, upon causes. The presumption of an effect without a cause is self-contradictory; [5] for if a mumkin is not needy, it is therefore free from need and independent while the truth of the matter is that the sole being that doesn’t require a cause is wajib al-wujud. As a result we inevitably end up with an entity that is both wajib and mumkin! This reasoning can adequately respond to those who believe huduth of the mumkin to be the criterion of neediness of causes. When they come across the argument of how this mumkin being continues in its existence they simply assert that it doesn’t have a cause. This is exactly where they have partnered two opposites and the partnership of two opposites is inadmissible; for it is incoherent to say that a mumkin does not plead for a cause, because if it can withstand existing, without a cause for even a moment, it must consequently be wajib, when at the same time we initially supposed it was mumkin.

Moreover, the existence of two eternal beings that are independent is also impossible; because this contradicts the oneness of wajib al-wujud that which, in turn, proves the tawhid of God. It has been established, in that context, that two wajib al-wujuds cannot exist together; for duality is characterized when on top of their similarities, the two entities possess differences as well. In other words, both wajib al-wujuds are combined of similarities and differences, making them a compound entity and consequently needy and wajib al-wujud cannot have neediness.

Therefore, when we establish “essential contingency” for a being, this quality (contingency) belongs to its wujud (existence). “Essential contingency” is completely identical to the need and contingency imbedded in the essence of the effect and need and contingency are dhati to a mumkin. When a quality is dhati to an entity it essentially cannot be separated and invariably accompanies it as long as the entity exists. As a result, as long as the effect exists its need and contingency upon a cause also exist. Now if we put this logical conclusion beside the ahadith that suggest the eternality of mankind, we can extract that beings other that God can be eternal but nevertheless completely depend on God Almighty.

[1]وَ لَا تحَسَبنَ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فىِ سَبِيلِ اللهِ أَمْوَاتَا بَلْ أَحْياءٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ يرْزَقُون
Aal Imraan:169.
[2]وَ الَّذِينَ کَفَرُوا وَ کَذَّبُوا بِآياتِنا أُولئِکَ أَصْحابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيها خالِدُونَ
[3]وَ بَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ عَمِلُوا الصَّالِحاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهارُ کُلَّما رُزِقُوا مِنْها مِنْ ثَمَرَةٍ رِزْقاً قالُوا هذَا الَّذِي رُزِقْنا مِنْ قَبْلُ وَ أُتُوا بِهِ مُتَشابِهاً وَ لَهُمْ فِيها أَزْواجٌ مُطَهَّرَةٌ وَ هُمْ فِيها خالِدُونَ
[4] Huduth means for the necessity of existence to come to an entity after it lacked it, or for the necessity of its inexistence to come after it bore it. Necessity is the criterion for needlessness of a cause, not the criterion for need. Therefore, huduth cannot be seen as the criterion for need of a cause, neither the whole criterion nor part of it nor a condition of it. As a result, the criterion for a mumkin al-wujud to be in need of a cause, is imkan (i.e., contingency). The reason being is that for an entity to have imkan means for it not to have the necessity of existence or the necessity of inexistence. In other words, only something that isn’t necessity or something inseparable from necessity and since huduth is inseparable from necessity of existence or inexistence, it cannot be the criterion for the need of a mumkin entity for a cause, but since imkan is the lack of necessity of existence or inexistence, it can be the criterion for such. Rabbani Golpaygani, Ali, Idhaah al-Hikmah fi Sharh Bidayah al-Hikmah, p. 193, The International Center for Islamic Studies, Qom.
[5] Rabbani Golpaygani, Ibid, p. 195.

If God is Merciful, why is life unfair?

Everyone in this life has his / her own tests and no one is without test. The sufferings in this life can be sometime because of our own bad deeds, or it can be a test to us. Ultimately, all of us will get the reward of our good deeds and the result of the bad deeds.

Paradise is not for everyone, but for those who had true faith and good deeds. The Justice of God will be obvious to all on the Day of Judgment, where the sufferings of the innocents will be rewarded for and all deeds will have its own results. Many people suffer in this life because of injustice done by oppressors and wrong doers. Nothing is away from Allah’s Justice, as Allah sees everything, and gives the result of it, although, Allah gives time to sinners and does not punish them immediately in most of the cases.

How can we know for a fact that God exists?

Dr. Jamal Badawi
Even on a very fundamental level we find that throughout history there is a very strange phenomenon that people of different backgrounds, living in so many different parts of the world at different points in time, have always had this strong urge within themselves to look and to yearn for the Creator. They see that there is some power, a magnificent and merciful power that is sometimes interpreted in a mistaken way by materializing that in some form or other (i.e. idols). The basic yearning has always been there. Even in places where there is no recorded history of a particular prophet, people have yearned for a Creator. That’s what I’m referring to as an innate nature. The Arabic term is ‘fitra.’ Fitra literally translates to: something that one is created with or created in accordance with: this innate nature.

Is the intellect an enemy to faith?

All human faculties such as the senses including also the intellect are part and parcel of the whole process of seeking the truth. None of these by themselves will be sufficient, but on a whole they are not really in contradiction. In fact I would say, even more positively, that from a Muslim point of view one of the main things that make the human being distinct, one of the basic blessings that he is given by God to make him different from animals since animals can think as well, is intellect. So the intellect is a God given gift or blessing. How could we interpret that as a challenge or antithesis of faith? This doesn’t really stand.

On the personal or individual level, one doesn’t have to venture far to realize that God does exist. Just look into yourself, you don’t have to be a scientist but if you are then you’ll appreciate more the construction of the body; how it is made up of many cells. One cell becomes a cell for sight and the other for hearing; it’s amazing. How does the brain operate? The circulatory system? The digestive system? The nervous system? Such coordination and beauty [is shown through their functioning]. This shows that these things didn’t come to be in a haphazard way, there must have been a deliberate design behind them. So if you want to find God then look into yourself.

The Qur’an says, Wa fee anfusiqum afala tubsiroon, which translates to

“By looking into yourselves, you will find evidence to the presence and powers of God.”[1]

In another verse it even says,

“Do they not reflect in their own minds?” [2]

“Do they not reflect in their own minds?” [2]

In fact, if one really divorces himself from any prejudice caused by societal pressures one way or the other, or the worship of science as the ultimate thing, if one utilizes science in the proper way, you wouldn’t have to look at the body as a whole, just start analyzing one single organ and see how it works. Like some scientists would tell you that in order to duplicate the digestive system you’d need a huge laboratory and still it wouldn’t operate as efficiently as a naturally created organ would such as the stomach. We have acids in our stomachs that can erode metal but it doesn’t hurt us. How could that be haphazard? If one aspect of that was developed by chance would everything else falling in line and falling together also happen by chance?

The Environment and Cosmic Order

Let’s move on to beyond ourselves, to find further evidence, the Quran also implores people to consider and to think. Take one aspect that many people think about today as very fashionable, like the ecological balance for example. Many people would take that as very clear evidence again that there is a design in this universe; vegetation as it relates to animal life and to human life; and the various atmospheric layers that we have. Everything is put together to sustain human life. If you look into the Quran, you find this mentioned. In one verse, in the Quran, it says that God created everything in exact proportion. [3] This is a very important term “in exact proportion” it’s not just that He created but that there is a deliberate design behind putting all of these things together.

In another verse, when people look at the whole scheme of creation, it says,

“Were they created from nothing or are they themselves the creators?”

[4] No one claims that he’s created from nothing nor can he claim that he is the creator [of the heavens and earth]. Then the verse continues,

“Or did they create the heavens and earth?”[5]

No one claims that. So the science is there. It’s whether we apply it in the right place and in the proper way or not that makes the difference.

Finally, if you move into what I would call the third circle, not just looking into ourselves or the environment around us but looking into the whole cosmic order, again there is a design. The planets. The solar system. The way everything is coordinated. The distance between the sun and the earth, which if decreased may burn everything and if decreased everything would freeze. This is all deliberate. The succession of day and night, the circulation or changes of seasons, which has very important relevance to the lives of the people, to vegetation, and to animal life; all of these beautiful things that we are in awe at in the universe, we look at them with great admiration, definitely show that there is a design behind them and as is obvious any design needs a designer or creator it.

One verse in the Quran implores us in particular to this area and says,

“Have they not reflected on the domain of the heavens and earth and what God created therein?”[6]

In another verse it also says, in the general sense of the meaning:

In the creation of the heavens and earth and in the succession of day and night there are certainly signs for those who reflect. Those who remember God while standing, sitting, and laying down and ponder on the creation of the heavens and the earth, saying: Our Lord you have not created this in vain. Glory be to You. Give us salvation from the penalty of the Fire.[7]

Our Own Limitations

In talking about the senses and the intellect or knowledge, I think anyone, even a person who does not believe in God, would admit readily that our senses are limited. Our perceptions are limited. Our sight, hearing, etc- we know that. Also, we know that our perceptions could also be deceived or they can deceive us. If you put a spoon in a glass of water, it looks crooked. A very well known phenomenon is of people traveling in the desert or in hot areas and would see in front of them a lake or a puddle of water- the mirage- but it actually does not exist. At the time it’s seen it is a reality to the person seeing it. So our perception is very useful, but it still falls short of getting to know everything.
On the other hand, science is fine. Science can resolve many issues and problems that are purely scientific- that are purely technical. Science can tell you for sure how to use technology for example to communicate sounds and pictures; this can be determined fully by science. However, there are many aspects in lives of people that are beyond science also. There is the moral aspect, there are the ethical standards, and there is the application of the fundamental principal of good and bad. As we said the [principle of good and bad] is instinctive but still needs some modifications and limitations. And we know throughout history that people have always had differences as to what exactly defines the proper ethical or moral standards. In order to resolve that problem, there must be a higher authority, God, Himself, telling us and providing us with stable standards of ethics and morality within which you can interpret various details.
Finally, and perhaps this is in my mind the most important reason, is that we know that knowledge is not only limited to science or books or perception. We know that there are certain aspects of knowledge, legitimate knowledge, which does not lend itself to any of those tools. For example, take the knowledge of the unseen. What happened in the past before history was recorded? If you wanted to get any information on that there is no recorded history. Or at least there is dispute about the recorded history. Revelation can tell you what, for example, the stories of previous prophets and what they said and what their message was.

There are issues that no matter how much you use your mind you will not be able to arrive at a final conclusion. An example of that would be the knowledge about God. You can feel the presence of God. You can feel the attributes of God but you can’t have full knowledge without having a prophet or messenger in receiving that revelation from God and the communication from Him to us. So, in essence, I don’t see contradiction. Actually, they all supplement each other. They have to be simply used in the proper context.

1. 51:21, وَفِي أَنفُسِكُمْ ۚ أَفَلَا تُبْصِرُ‌ونَ.
2. 30:8, أَوَلَمْ يَتَفَكَّرُ‌وا فِي أَنفُسِهِم.
3. 25:2, وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَقَدَّرَ‌هُ تَقْدِيرً‌ا.
4. 52:35, أَمْ خُلِقُوا مِنْ غَيْرِ شَيْءٍ أَمْ هُمُ الْخَالِقُونَ.
5.52:36, أَمْ خَلَقُوا السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ بَل لّا يُوقِنُونَ.
6. Source not found.
7. 3:190-191, إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْ‌ضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ‌ لَآيَاتٍ لِّأُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ ﴿١٩٠﴾ الَّذِينَ يَذْكُرُ‌ونَ اللَّـهَ قِيَامًا وَقُعُودًا وَعَلَىٰ جُنُوبِهِمْ وَيَتَفَكَّرُ‌ونَ فِي
خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْ‌ضِ رَ‌بَّنَا مَا خَلَقْتَ هَـٰذَا بَاطِلًا سُبْحَانَكَ فَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ‌.

Who is God and how is it possible to prove His existence?

Who is God and how is it possible to prove His existence?

In order to clarify our answer to the above question, it is necessary to take a few points into account:
1. The concept of “God” is one of the simplest concepts that even atheists can understand and comprehend, because everybody knows that God refers to the being that has created everything, that exists in this world, is capable of doing whatsoever he desires, is aware of everything that occurs and is all perceiving, the ever listening and etc.
2. Although the term “God” is one of the most general concepts, comprehending the true nature of his essence is out of our reach. The reason being that ‘knowledge’ means and happens when the ‘knower’ has total awareness of ‘the known’ subject, and due to the fact that man’s being and attributes are in almost every way finite, which results in a limited and finite knowledge, comprehending God’s infinite true essence is out of his reach (the limited cannot have total awareness of the unlimited because of the lack of capacity for such). “They cannot encompass God in knowledge”[1] hence one should refrain from pondering God’s essence. Perhaps, it is because of the same reason that the Holy Quran while mentioning the attributes of God describes Him as Needless, Knowing, Wise, Seeing, Hearing, Exalted, Great, Compassionate, Merciful, Creator, Originator etc. [2]
In addition, man establishes communication with external objects which are the signs of God and which help mankind gain knowledge about the Lord. In fact, God, the Exalted is not like anything. “Nothing is like Him”. «لیس کمثله شی»[3]
Despite the fact that we cannot comprehend Him completely, everyone is capable of studying the divine attributes and understand them depending on the capacity he possesses.
The ways to knowing and comprehending God can be summed up in the following ways:
1. Reason, like the argument of necessity and contingency (the burhan of Wujub and Imkan)
2. Through experimentation and sensation, such as the argument from design[4]
3. The inner way, the argument of fitrah (genesis, innate disposition towards virtue and knowledge)[5]
4 – The easiest and the best way to understand and know God is the argument of fitrah (or the way of the heart) whereby a person refers to his own God-gifted nature and to his inward where he sees God without any rational argument or any experimental observation. There is always a luminous spot in man’s heart which enables him to communicate with the metaphysical world. It is also the closest way to God.[6]
5. Although knowing God, the tendency towards Him and the light of monotheism are ingrained in the nature of all human beings, the superstitious norms, customs, wrong educations, false inculcations, negligence, pride and a lot of other factors especially when one is healthy and enjoys all kinds of bounties, obstruct and overpower the God-gifted nature. But when he is surrounded by misery and hardship and when he despairs of worldly means and feels that he has no access to anything, it is only then that the curtains go away and that luminous spot becomes visible. It is only then that he drops all kinds of polytheistic thoughts and becomes purified in this oven of difficulties and mishaps[7] turning to the metaphysical world. Man’s turning to God during times of calamities is a sign of our inclinations to Godliness. Man gets involved with his position and status so much that he forgets about God. He gets fully entangled in his sins and disobedience. Once calamity befalls upon man, he suddenly remembers God and turns to Him for help. Thus, we realize that this sense of Godliness is intrinsic in humans, but man’s involvement in worldly affairs results in his forgetting God.
That is why, there are different Quranic verses that remind mankind about the bounty of God-seeking nature.[8]
The great leaders of Islam also guided in the same way those who went contemplating with hesitation about God. For example read the following piece of history:
A man went to see Imam Ja’far ibn Muhammad al-Sadiq (as) and expressed his amazement about knowing God.
The man said: “I have discussed this issue with many knowledgeable people, but they have not been able to help me.” Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s) ended his amazement using his intrinsic human Godliness and asked him:
“Have you ever been aboard a ship?”
The man said: “Yes.”
Then Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s) asked: “Have you ever been on a sinking ship, and reached out for a narrow piece of board to stay afloat?”
The man said: “Yes. I have.”
Then Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s) said: “Then while you could not see any dry land or anyone there to save you, were you not really attracted to some power to rescue you?”
The man replied: “Yes.”
Imam Sadiq (a.s) said: He is God Who has the power to save. There is no one else to save or to come a person’s help.”
The conclusion we can draw is that Godliness is intrinsic and that every individual has some tendency, perception and knowledge of God within his heart. If he is negligent of God due to some reasons, he cannot deny the incidents which have taken place in his lifetime and in which he has been bereaved of all means causing him to direct his attention to God.[9]
6. Sometimes, man is led to God and His attributes such as knowledge, power and wisdom simply by observing and contemplating carefully over the qualities of things and their relationship with each other. Since this way is based on observation of the natural world and experimental study of natural phenomena, it is called the ‘experimentation way’. Given the privileges of this way, the Holy Quran has attached special importance to it. Therefore, there are many verses calling on man to ponder over the worldly phenomena surrounding him because they serve as creational signs of God, the Lord of the universe. Some Muslim scholars, relying on certain aspects and features of the world of nature e.g. the design and pervasive order in natural things, have arranged an argument to prove God’s existence. The argument is named “argument from design”. Therefore, the argument from design can be named a clear example of what we just termed as ‘knowing God through experimentation’.
Understanding through the ‘signs’ pointed to in the Quran and hadiths:
There are verses in different chapters of the Holy Quran which make mention of various natural phenomena considering them as signs and indications for God’s existence and also calling on humans to contemplate over them. Knowing God through His creational signs in the world of creation which is a clear example of seeking God through the experimental way is sometimes interpreted as “understanding God through His signs”.[10] A number of verses call on mankind to contemplate and ponder over the creational signs of God. They describe the system existing in the universe and in man’s being as a reason and guide that lead the wise and the thoughtful towards the origin of the universe:
“Most surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day there are signs for men who understand.”[11]
And “On the earth are signs for those of assured Faith, As also in your own selves: Will ye not then see?”[12]
There are numerous other verses in the Quran which have made reference to special phenomena and considered them as the signs of the existence, knowledge and power of God. The verses relating to this subject are so many that even mentioning few examples would need a great amount of space and time.[13]
Religious leaders, following the Quranic method, have also emphasized on ‘sign based understanding of God”. For example, it has been reported that Imam Sadiq (a.s) said to one of his companions:
“O’ Mufaddal, the structure of the universe is the foremost directive and argument for the existence of Almighty Allah — how the parts thereof have been set together and been possessed of elegant workmanship and design. An appropriate mood of contemplation with reason focused on individual parts will disclose that this universe is comparable to a house furnished with all articles necessary for human beings.
The sky is like a canopy; the earth is spread like a carpet, while the stars set in stratum upon stratum, appear as lamps alight in their places. The gems are treasured as if the house has lots of collections. Besides these, everything is readily available to meet individual needs. Man, in this world, is like the masterful owner of the house, having in his possession everything therein.
And there exist the different plant species available for meeting; individual needs — some as fodder for the animals, others as drugs for human beings; some merely for ornaments, some to supply fragrance to man for his recreation; some as drugs for animals, some as nutriment for man; some for birds only and others for the quadrupeds alone and so on. Different species of animals have been allotted functions for particular exigencies and interest.
These are reasons to prove that the universe has been created with wise and precise measuring, order and harmony. It is creator is One and He is the Designer and Originator of this harmony and order.”[14]
7. The rational way:
This is the way through which God is proved with purely rational preliminaries, principles and methods. [15]
The philosophical reasons and arguments for proving God’s existence are clear examples of rational investigation and research in line with proving God. Compared to the other two ways, this way has certain features of which we shall mention some as under:
1. Many of the rational arguments and explanations are not very useful for those who lack philosophical information because of the fact that philosophical arguments are complex and difficult in nature.[16]
2. One of privileges of the rational way is that it can be used in our scientific debates with the atheists. Thus, we can reveal the weakness and flaw of their arguments by presenting rational arguments. The rational way can also be used to answer the challenges posed by rationalists and those who surrender not to anything but rational arguments.
3. The rational way used to prove the existence of God can be effective in strengthening religious beliefs because whenever a person’s mind submits to the truth, his heart also inclines towards it. On the other hand, rational argument plays a crucial role in removing doubts and hesitations and in curtailing any harm on one’s religious conviction and belief.[17]
Taking into consideration the unique function of the intellectual method, and the mind’s natural inclination towards profound intellectual matters and discussions, Islamic scholars have made great efforts regarding understanding God through logic and intellect which have led to new arguments in this field, or the completion of previous ones. One of the most solid logic based reasons for proving the existence of God is the famous proof called “The Argument of Necessity and Possibility” (wujub wa imkan). There are different variations to this argument, but for our purposes we will use the one below. We can summarize this proof of necessity and possibility in this format: It is certain that there exists a being in the universe. If this being is the necessary existent, then our proof will be at hand. If it is a possible existent, then it has a need for a cause and since it is impossible to have an infinite chain of possible existents, this possible existent is in need of a necessary existent (whose existence is not bestowed by another cause). This existent is that of the Wajibul Wujud, or the necessary existent. To repeat this in other words, there are different kinds of possible existents in the world. They are either necessary existents or possible existents. The necessary existent does not derive its being from another cause or being, but the possible existent came into being due to another cause. All possible existents go back in a chain that must lead to a necessary existent, due to the fact that an infinite chain of existents is impossible.
Note: Since your question was precise and it was not clear whether your question dealt with God’s existence or with His attributes, we have endeavored to tackle the first possibility in greater length. In case, you are willing to know further about God’s attributes, you can email us again.

[1] – “لا یحیطون به علما” Taha:110.
[2] – Tafsir Namunah, vol.14, pg. 161.
[3] -Al-Shura, 11.
[4] – Just because this way utilizes experimentation doesn’t mean it is devoid of any reasoning and rationality, what is meant when it is said that it is experimental is that one of the premises of the argument is such, which is to observe the different phenomena of this world.
[5] – Ma’aref Islami, vol.1, pg. 41.
[6] – Tafsir Namunah, vol.16, pg. 341 & 342.
[7] – Ibid, pg. 418 – 422 & 423
[8] – Such as verse 65 Al-Ankabut and verse 30 of Sura Al-Room and verse 12, 22, and 23 of Sura Yunus, verse 67 and Sura al-Isra and verses 8 and 49 of Sura al-Zumar.
[9] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.3, pg. 41.
[10] – It should be noted that there are many viewpoints about “sign based understanding”, a concept derived from the Holy Quran: Some researchers consider it as a prelude to the formation of a rational argument – similar to what was in “argument from design” – about God’s existence, His knowledge and wisdom. However, based on another exegetic notion, the Quranic verses which call on man to contemplate over the natural phenomena are simply reminding him about his natural knowledge of God. The verses serve as reminders only. A third view is that the intended verses are aim to argue with the pagans, those who wrongly considered idols and their own hand-made statues as their lords and effective in the affairs of the world having no precise understanding of divine unity. (See: Tafsir Al-Mizan, Allamah Tabatabai, vol.18, pg. 154; Ideological Instruction, Mesbah Yazdi, vol.1-2, pg. 68, and Tabyin Barahin Ethbat, Javadi Amuli, pg. 43).
[11] – ان فی خلق السماوات والارض و اختلاف اللیل والنهار لآیات لاولی الالباب. [Aal-e Imran: 190]
[12] – و فی الارض آیات للموقنین. و فی انفسکم، افلا تبصرون. (Dhariyat, 20 & 21 and also see: Baqarah, 164; Jathiyah, 3 – 6; Yunus, 100 and 101; Ibrahim, 10).
[13] – Verses that emphasize on specific phenomena being signs are sorted out into few general categories. The verses relating to human life are: 1. Overall system of man’s creation: Jathiya, 4, and Room,20. 2. Fetus formation system in the womb: Aal-e Imran, 6, Infitar, 6 – 7; Taghbarun, 3; Ghafir, 64, ; Hashr, 24; Noorh, 13 – 14. 3. Cognitive system: Nahl, 78. 4. Variety and multiplicity of languages and colors: Room, 22; Fatir, 27 and 28. 5. Sustenance and feeding system: Ghafir, 64; Isra, 70, Jathiyah 50 & 20; Fatir, 3, Room, 4; Saba, 24; Yunus, 31; Naml, 64, Mulk, 21, Anfal, 26; Baqarah, 22 & 172; Ibrahim, 22 and Dhariyat, 58. 6. Sleep system: Room, 23; Naml, 86; Furqan, 47; Naba, 9 and Zumar, 42. 7. Clothing system: A’raf, 26 and Nahl, 14 & 81. 8. Residential system: Nhajl, 80. 9. Marriage system: Room, 21; Shura, 11; Fatir, 11; Najm, 45; Qiyamat, 39; Nahjl, 72; Layl, 3; Naba, 8 and A’raf, 189.
[14] – Also, see: Nahjul Balaghah, sermon 186, Al-Tawhid, Shaykh Saduq, chapt. 2, hadtih 2, and Behar al-Anwar, Allamah Majlisi, vol.3, pp. 61, 82, 130, 152.
[15] – This way being called ‘rational’ does not necessarily mean that only reason or intellect is used to prove God. In fact, it means that it has sufficed to rational preliminaries and methods.
[16] – This meaning is not inconsistent with the rational way being considered of general and public utility because ‘being public’ is relative here as opposed to ‘being personal’ in the sense that the rational way is not particular to a single person. In fact, different people can benefit from it.
[17] – Rational is useful especially for those who are deprived of the capacity to see God through intuition and with the eye of the heart.

Is ‘Apprehension’ a quality that can be attributed to God?


Taking into consideration the verse “لا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصارُ وَ هُوَ يُدْرِكُ الْأَبْصارَ وَ هُوَ اللَّطيفُ الْخَبيرُ”[1], Mudrik (being apprehensive) is one of God’s names.[2] In the Quran and traditions, this attribute (Mudrik)[3] has been mentioned explicitly, thus making Him ‘one who apprehends’, as the verse also asserted.
Regarding the meaning of ‘apprehension’, there is a difference of opinion among Islamic theologians as to whether this quality is one other than Allah’s knowledge to general and specific matters, or if it is equivalent to God’s knowledge, or if it is a particular knowledge that Allah possesses of things in a specific and actual manner; in other words, according to this interpretation, God’s apprehension will mean a perception of external things and total encompassment of them.[4]
It is noteworthy that there is a consensus that it is permissible to attribute those qualities which Islam has sanctioned to Allah, and impermissible to attribute those that have been prohibited. The only matter there is a difference on are attributes that have neither been sanctioned explicitly, nor prohibited explicitly.
Some have said in this regard, that the attributes of God aren’t ‘on instruction’ (tawqifi), meaning that we don’t necessarily need the attribute to have been mentioned in a Quranic verse or hadith, rather, all that is required is for the name or quality not to be imaginary or entail something impossible for His essence. Others on the other hand, believe that only those qualities or attributes that the infallibles have used for Him can be ascribed to Him. A third group distinguishes between names and qualities, seeing the former as being ‘on instruction’ (relying on it being used in a verse or hadith) and the latter as not being so.[5]

[1] An’am:103 “The sights do not apprehend Him, yet He apprehends the sights, and He is the All-attentive, the All-aware”.
[2] Sobhani, Jafar, Al-Ilahiyyat ala Huda al-Kitab wa al-Sunnat wa al-Aql, vol. 1, p. 163, Al-Markaz al-Aalami li al-Dirasaat al-Islamiyyah, Qum, 1412 AH.
[3] Such as: “وَ اللَّهِ‏ الَّذِي لا إِلهَ إِلَّا هُوَ … الْمُدْرِكُ‏ الَّذِي يَعْلَمُ السِّرَّ وَ الْعَلَانِيَةَ”; Tusi, Muhammad ibn al-Hasan, Tahdhib al-Ahkam, researched and corrected by: Musavi Kharsan, Hasan, vol. 6, p. 319, Daar al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah, Tehran, fourth edition, 1407 AH.
[4] Al-Ilahiyyat ala Huda al-Kitab wa al-Sunnat wa al-Aql, vol. 1, p. 163.
[5] Islamic Research Center, Farhange Shia, p. 321, Zamzam Hedayat, Qum, second edition, 1386 (solar); Tabatabai, Sayyid Muhammad Husayn, Al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Quran, vol. 8, pp. 358-359, Islamic Publications Office, Qum, fifth edition, 1374 (solar).

Please explain the intellectual and logical reasons that prove tawhid.


“Tawhid” is the most prominent principle of Islam and other Abrahamic faiths. Tawhid literally means to unify and, when used as a theological term, means to believe in one god. The opposite of tawhid is shirk, which is referred to by the Quran as the “great oppression”[1] or the “unforgivable sin”.[2]

Tawhid has different levels and degrees, namely: Dhati (in essence), Sifati (in attributes), Afaali (in actions), Ebadi (in being worshipped), Malikiyyah (in ownership), Haakimiyyah (oneness in ruling) and oneness in legislation. Below we will only explain tawhid dhati and the arguments that prove it.

Dhati Tawhid (Oneness in Essence):
This level of tawhid is divided into two parts: Tawhid Ahadi and Tawhid Wahedi. The first means that there is only one being whose existence is necessary and that it has no partner or parallel. The second means to deny any form of intellectual, actual or imaginative composition for God and to believe in his non-composition, meaning that God is not a wajib al-wujud (a being whose existence is necessary) that simply does not have a parallel and is the only instance of wajib al-wujud to be found, but rather a wajib al wujud that cannot have a parallel, as it is impossible to picture a partner for him. In philosophy, this oneness is referred to as al-Wahdah al-Haqqah al-Haqiqiyyah (true and real oneness) as opposed to oneness in number, gender, etc.
Arguments in Favor of Tawhid Dhati:

Many arguments can be presented to prove Tawhid Dhati, some of which the Quran makes reference to. The following is an explanation of some of these arguments:

1- The argument of one power controlling and managing the world: If there were two powers in the world, there would be evident chaos and disorder in the world.[3] Therefore, the fact there is order in this world shows that there is only one god. Even though this argument solely proves the oneness of a manager for this world, but it can also prove the oneness of God.
2- The argument of the unified message of prophets: If there was more than one god, the other gods would also send prophets to guide people, but such a thing has never taken place.[4] In other words, the fact that there are no prophets sent by the other gods shows that they (other gods) do not exist. [5]

3- The argument of denying all parallels and partners: God’s essence is unlimited and transcendental and possesses all excellencies.[6] There is no place that is empty of Him, no time that He is not present in and no perfection that He does not possess.[7] He has no limits as the Quran says: “هُوَ اللَّهُ فِی السَّماواتِ وَ فِی الْأَرْضِ”[8] “فَأَیْنَما تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ”[9] He is everywhere and is never confined to limits, including time and place.[10] Knowing that wajib al-wujud is absolute existence and has no limits, He cannot have any parallels or partners that both share something with Him in their essence and also have something that sets them apart from Him, for His absoluteness in existence will not leave any room for another god.[11]
4- The argument of God’s needlessness: It is proven that God has no needs. Denying need from one, is another way of denying all composition from him, because every comprised being is in need of its parts to exist. Therefore, by proving that God has no needs, we can prove his oneness in the sense that He has no composition and is not comprised of different parts.[12]
5- The argument of God’s non-composition and being unlimited: As we explained above God has no parts and no needs. He is absolute existence and, due to his absoluteness, nothing limits His existence. If there was another wajib, each one would possess different existences and lack the existence of the other. Therefore, their existence would be limited and both gods would be comprised of existence and non existence which is the worst of compositions.[13] As a result, no mumkin al-wujud (contingent being) can be parallel to God because of the mumkin’s limited existence and because God’s unlimited existence does not leave any room for any parallel.[14]


[1] Luqman:13 “وَ إِذْ قالَ لُقْمانُ لاِبْنِهِ وَ هُوَ یَعِظُهُ یا بُنَیَّ لا تُشْرِکْ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّ الشِّرْکَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظیمٌ”
[2] Nisa’:48 “إِنَّ اللَّهَ لا یَغْفِرُ أَنْ یُشْرَکَ به وَ یَغْفِرُ ما دُونَ ذلِکَ لِمَنْ یَشاءُ”
[3] See: Anbiya:22; Mu’minun:91.
[4] See: Ahqaf:4; Anbiya:25.
[5] Nahjul-Balaghah, letter 31.
[6] See: Makarim Shirazi, Nasir, Aqideye Yek Mosalman, Hadaf Press, first edition, pg. 38.
[7] See: Makarmi Shirazi, Nasir, Khoda ra Chegune Beshnasim, Mohammadi Press, 1343, pg. 42.
[8] An’am:3.
[9] Baqarah:155.
[10] Makarim Shirazi, Nasir, Aqideye Yek Mosalman, pg. 43.
[11] See: Surah Tawhid; Shura:11.
[12] There are verses in the Quran that mention God’s needlessness, such as: “وَاللَّهُ هُوَ الْغَنِیُّ الْحَمیدُ” Fater, 15
[13] Jawadi Amoli, Abdullah, Sharhe Hekmate Mota’aliyeh (Asfare Arba’ah), vol. 6, section 1, pp. 433-434, al-Zahra Press.
[14] For further information, see index: Assuming a mumkin al-wujud next to a wajib al-wujud, Question 80 (website: 1862) and index: The endlessness of God’s existence, Question 1944 (website: 1944).

Can you prove why God should be unlimited?


In order to answer the question, we must clarify the meaning of the infiniteness of God and His relation with other beings:
Divine infinity means that God is in every way immeasurable, unbounded, unlimited, unrestricted, without end, inexhaustible and has all attributes of perfection.[i] In all of His attributes, God is limitless and endless. When you consider His power, wisdom, justice, knowledge, etc., God is boundless. He is not restricted by time or space. He has all attributes of perfection and there is no perfection that He might lack.[ii] The essence of God is limitless and unbounded. The Quran says:
“ُوَ اللَّهُ فِی السَّماواتِ وَ فِی الْأَرْضِ”[iii] و ” فَأَیْنَما تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ[iv]
“And He is Allah in the heavens and on earth” and “Whithersoever ye turn, there is the presence of Allah.”
God is therefore present everywhere and He is not restricted by time or place. He is above time and place. However, infiniteness in relation to God does not mean that He has occupied all places in the same way and manner as the physical entities have filled them. In fact, God is not matter and He does not fill the places in the material sense. It is only matter (that has length, breadth and width) that occupies a place and God is not matter to occupy a place. Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi says:
“As for why God is not matter, it is because every material object is limited, limited by time, place, qualities, features and effects. Every physical object has a fixed dimension whereas God’s existence is infinite and immeasurable in all terms. Obviously, such a being cannot be bounded with time and place.[v],[vi]
When it comes to the question as to why God is unlimited and infinite, we must say:
First, in view of the fact that a necessary being must be all-perfect (i.e. he should have all virtues of perfection) and that He cannot be limited by anything because if He were limited, it would mean that He is a combination of existence and non-existence. It has been proved else where that combination is a sign of need and the concomitant of need is space whereas God (Who is the Necessary Being) is free from need and imperfection as was argued above. In fact, combination is against our supposition.[vii]
Secondly, it has been proved in its place that God, the Exalted, is pure existence and pure actuality. Finiteness means combination of existence and non-existence. Therefore, pure existence is not compatible with finiteness and limitation, and pure perfection cannot be limited by anything.


[i] – Makarem Shirazi, Naser, The Belief of a Muslim, Hadaf Publication, 1st edition, pg. 38
[ii] – Makarem Shirazi, Naser, “How to Know God”, Muhammadi Publications, 1343 pg.42
[iii] – Al-An’am, 3
[iv] – Al-Baqarah, 155
[v] – Makarem Shirazi, Naser, The Belief of a Muslims, pg. 43.
[vi] – Excerpted from answer question 1944 (site: 1944), Index: “God’s Infinite Existence”
[vii] – Vide: A Collection of Student Questions, Khuda Shinasi and Farjamshinasi, Maaref Publication Office, 2003, pg. 71, with little modification.

What is the meaning of the word “Allah”?


The word “Allah” which is translated into God is a particular and the most comprehensive of God’s names. This name is used only for God because each name of the Lord, the Almighty, reflects a single attribute of God. It is the only name that combines and includes all the attributes of divine perfection. In other words, “Allah” incorporates all the features of glory and beauty.[1]
“Allah is derived from the root “valah” which means perplexity, because the mind is perplexed when it tries to understand the divine essence.
The Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.) has been reported as having said:
“Allah means the worshipped one, by Whom people are bewildered, and to Whom they are submissive. Allah is the One veiled from the grasp of sights, and the One hidden from imagination and contemplation.”[2]
Some have said that “Allah” is derived from “Alah (worship) and it is from the root word “al-Ilah” which means the only (righteously) worshipped (deity). God’s other names are often used to refer to one of the attributes of Allah. For example, “Ghafoor” and “Rahim” refer to God’s compassion and mercy:
“فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِیمٌ”.
“Allah is surely Forgiving, Merciful.”[3]
The attribute “Sami'” refers to God’s knowledge of what is heard and “Alim” refers to His knowledge of everything:
“فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِیعٌ عَلِیمٌ”
“Allah is surely Hearing, Knowing.”[4]
“Basir” signifies His knowledge of those things that are seen.
“وَ اللَّهُ بَصِیرٌ بِما تَعْمَلُونَ”
“And Allah is Seer of what ye do.”[5]
“Razzaq” (Bestower of Sustenance) refers to God’s sustaining of all the creatures. “Zulquwah” refers to His power and “Matin” to His being strong:
“إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِینُ”
“Surely Allah is the Bestower of sustenance, the Lord of Power, the Strong.”[6]
Finally “Khaliq” (Creator) and “Bari'” (Evolver) refer to God’s creation and “Musawir” indicates His bestowing of “forms”:
“ُوَ اللَّهُ الْخالِقُ الْبارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ لَهُ الْأَسْماءُ الْحُسْنى”
“He is Allah, the Creator, the Evolver, the Bestower of Forms (or Colours). To Him belongs the Most Beautiful Names.”[7]
In fact, it is only “Allah” which is God’s most comprehensive name. It is for the same reason that many attributes in a single verse qualifies the name “Allah”:
“ُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِی لا إِلهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِکُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَیْمِنُ الْعَزِیزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَکَبِّر” سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا یُشْرِکُونَ.
“Allah is He, than Whom there is no other god;- the Sovereign, the Holy One, the Source of Peace (and Perfection), the Guardian of Faith, the Preserver of Safety, the Exalted in Might, the Irresistible, the Supreme: Glory to Allah! (High is He) above the partners they attribute to Him.”[8]
One of the clear proofs showing the comprehensiveness of this name is that expressing faith and belief is possible only through the sentence “La ilaha illallah” (There is no deity but Allah). Therefore, sentences like “There is no deity but the Knowledgeable”, “but the Creator” or “but the Sustainer” and the likes cannot incorporate and corporate monotheism and Islam. It is for the same reason that when other religions speak of the “worshipped deity” of Muslims, they use the name “Allah” because describing God by “Allah” is particular to Muslims.


[1] – Tafsir Namunah, vol.1, pg. 21 and 22
[2] – Behar al-Answar
[3] – Al-Baqarah: 226
[4] – Al-Baqarah: 227
[5] – Hujurat: 18
[6] – Al-Dhariyat: 58
[7] – Al-Hashr:24
[8] – Al-Hashr: 23

Why did Allah create Satan?


First: Satan’s role in deviating and misguiding man is confined to tempting him. Second: Progress and development can only take place when there are opposite and conflicting forces, and therefore the creation of such a being in the Nezame Ahsan (perfect world system) is not considered in vain, but rather a manifestation of Allah’s mercy and pure goodness.

Detailed Answer

First: Allah did not create Satan as Satan. Proof for such a claim would be that he accompanied the angels and the worshippers for many years (six thousand years)[1], but later on he took the path of disobedience by his own free will and was distanced from Allah’s mercy.

Second: The existence of Satan is not harmful for believers and those who are determined to take the path of truth, instead it can help them to progress, develop and reach perfection; because progress, improvement and development can only take place when there are opposite forces.[2]

The only role Satan plays in this world is the role of tempting people; meaning that he only calls people to take the wrong path. Allah has not granted him control over other beings or the authority to exert influence on souls without them choosing to obey him. The Almighty says in the Quran: “ان لیس له سلطان علی الذین آمنوا و علی ربهم یتوکلون” [3](Indeed he does not have any authority over those who have faith and put their trust in their Lord.) It is for this reason that when a group of people go to Satan on the Day of Judgment because of misleading them, Satan argues that: “…و ما کان لی علیکم من سلطان الاّ ان دعوتکم…”[4] (I had no authority over you, except that I called you and you responded to me.)

The teachings of the Quran show that Satan’s role in misleading man is confined to tempting him and he never forces one to go astray; because man is called by two calls, the call of Allah and the call of Satan and it is man that freely decides which one he will follow. However, Satan does have authority and control over people that, through their free will, follow his call, carry out his demands and think of him as their example, and he will destroy their souls.

“…انما سلطانه علی الذین یتولونه”[5] (His authority is only over those who befriend him and those who make him a partner [of Allah]…)

Why has God not protected Masjidul Haram and Ka’bah against floods and other disasters?

Ka’bah and Masjidul Haram (Grand Mosque) are the most sacred, most revered and most valuable places on earth. The building of Ka’bah is made of earthly materials. All the laws governing the material world govern the House of God as well. Thus, it is vulnerable against floods, earthquakes, fires and explosions. God, the Almighty, did not alter the universal law in order to protect this House.
It should be noted that safeguarding the Ka’bah does not mean protecting its building against damages and erosions; rather it means preserving and maintaining its sanctity in people’s hearts and minds so that whenever the Ka’bah is destroyed, the same people should embark on rebuilding it with all their might. Indeed, there are some instances such as the attack of Ashaab al Fil (the Companions of the Elephant) upon the Ka’bah which was repelled by birds at God’s order. It is said that when Abraha prepared to enter the city, swarms of birds carrying small rocks came and bombarded the Ethiopian forces; each man that was hit was killed, and they fled in panic, as Abraha died a horrible death. This incident was to let everyone know that God’s power is above all powers. No matter, how strong the enemies of God may be, they cannot protect and defend themselves against the smallest and weakest of God’s creatures.
Detailed Answer
Ka’bah and Masjidul Haram are the most sacred, most revered and most valuable places on earth, because God, the Exalted, made Ka’bah on earth on a par with Baitul Ma’moor (the Inhabited House) which is in the heavens and which the angels circumambulate around [1] so that mankind should have the opportunity to rotate around the House of God and attain divine proximity.
However, the same highly sacred and valuable building is material and earthly with all the worldly and natural laws governing it and applying to it. That is to say, the structure of the Ka’bah has been built on the surface of the earth with the existing materials and stones which are the cheapest materials in that land. It has a ceiling to protect it against sun heat and rains. It has a door and a padlock so that everyone may not enter it. It becomes dirty because of pollution and dirty dust and that it needs to be washed. In all, it is subservient to natural laws.
One of the laws governing this sacred place is that it is vulnerable to floods, earthquakes, fires and explosions. If it is said that God protects this house, it does not mean that if its walls are made of stone and mud and it is overrun by floods, then it will remain intact and its muddy walls will not dissolver in water against all the rules governing the world. Definitely, the muddy wall will be eroded, and a wall with these materials will be destroyed wherever it is. And if there is anyone under its walls and they collapse, he will surely be harmed. However, if the same walls are made of cement or molten lead, they will not be vulnerable against flood and water but they will be vulnerable against explosions because the Quran says, “… Thou wilt not find for the law of Allah aught of power to change.” [2] It has been narrated that “all things are in God’s hand and they take place through their causes and in fixed quantity…” [3]
Therefore, in the same way that the bodies of the prophets and imams are subservient to universal laws and these noble servants of God suffered wounds and succumbed to martyrdom, the Ka’bah and Masjidul Haram are also subservient to divine laws despite their sanctity and reverence. Thus, God has never altered the universal law in this regard.
Indeed, there are some instances such as the attack of Ashaab al Fil (the Companions of the Elephant) upon the Ka’bah which was repelled by birds at God’s will. It is said that when Abraha prepared to enter the city, swarms of birds carrying small rocks came and bombarded the Ethiopian forces; each man that was hit was killed, and they fled in panic, as Abraha died a horrible death. This incident was to let everyone know that God’s power is above all powers. No matter, how strong the enemies of God may be, they cannot protect and defend themselves against the smallest and weakest of God’s creatures.
Surely, God protects His house and His religion but He protects them through the regular ways and ordinary means without altering the universal laws.
It should be noted that protecting the Ka’bah does not mean safeguarding its building against damages and erosions; rather it means preserving and maintaining its sanctity in people’s hearts and minds so that whenever the Ka’bah is destroyed, the same people should rebuild it with all their might.
Index: The Imams and the Ability to Protect Their Shrines, questions 1287 (site: 1271)
Index: Why didn’t God save Imam Hussein (a.s.) from getting killed? Question 6620 (site:8323) .


[1] – Behar al-Anwar, vol.96, pg.57, hadith 9:
“وَ رُوِیَ عَنِ الصَّادِقِ ع أَنَّهُ سُئِلَ لِمَ سُمِّیَتِ الْکَعْبَةُ قَالَ لِأَنَّهَا مُرَبَّعَةٌ فَقِیلَ لَهُ وَ لِمَ صَارَتْ مُرَبَّعَةً قَالَ لِأَنَّهَا بِحِذَاءِ الْبَیْتِ الْمَعْمُورِ وَ هُوَ مُرَبَّعٌ فَقِیلَ لَهُ وَ لِمَ صَارَ بَیْتُ الْمَعْمُورِ مُرَبَّعاً قَالَ لِأَنَّهُ بِحِذَاءِ الْعَرْشِ وَ هُوَ مُرَبَّعٌ فَقِیلَ لَهُ وَ لِمَ صَارَ الْعَرْشُ مُرَبَّعاً قَالَ لِأَنَّ الْکَلِمَاتِ الَّتِی بُنِیَ عَلَیْهَا الْإِسْلَامُ أَرْبَعٌ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَ اللَّهُ أَکْبَرُ”.
[2] – Fath (Victory): 23 “… وَ لَنْ تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ اللَّهِ تَبْدیلا” .
[3] – Al-Kafi, vol.5, pg.373,
، “ثُمَّ إِنَّ هَذِهِ الْأُمُورَ کُلَّهَا بِیَدِ اللَّهِ تَجْرِی إِلَى أَسْبَابِهَا وَ مَقَادِیرِهَا فَأَمْرُ اللَّهِ یَجْرِی إِلَى قَدَرِهِ وَ قَدَرُهُ یَجْرِی إِلَى أَجَلِه‏”.