Why does Islam Impose Harsh Punishments for Sex outside Marriage

Punishment in Islam has a social purpose, which is to dissuade others from committing the same crime. The nature of the punishment depends on the seriousness of the crime in question. Nowadays, some are opposed to the Islamic punishment for fornication and adultery because they see it as disproportionate or too harsh a punishment. The basic problem here is the different standards by which the severity of the crime is measured.
Islam views adultery as a very serious crime, because it undermines the very foundation of the family system upon which the whole superstructure of the society is built. Illicit relationships destabilize the family and bring about the breakdown of the system. Family breakdown imperils the physical and mental health of future generations, which in turn leads to a vicious circle of decadence, dissipation, and dissolution. Therefore, it is imperative that all measures must be taken to protect the family. That is why Islam emphasizes protection of the family by imposing severe punishments for activities that threaten the family foundation. These punishments are the same for men and women alike.
There is no overstating of the fact that Islamic punishments are only a part of a vastly larger integrated whole. There are essential conditions for the application of prescribed punishments in Islam:


First, Muslims are strongly encouraged to marry whenever possible, providing a lawful means of gratification. Imam Ali (a.s.) exhorts,

“Marry, because marriage is the tradition of Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.).”

Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) also said,

“Whosoever likes to follow my tradition, then he should know that marriage is from my tradition.”[1]

A man may legally take as many as four wives as long as he treats each of them equitably and justly. In cases of confirmed incompatibility or dissatisfaction, a wife has the right to request the dissolution of the marriage.


Second, Muslims, whether married or unmarried, must adhere to proper dress and behavior guidelines at all times. Privacy is to be respected and compromising situations strictly avoided as a matter of obedience to Allah.


Third, only a legitimate Islamic government has the right to implement these punishments. Such an Islamic government must establish justice as its core value in all affairs so that the social and cultural environment of the country is congenial for the moral life of its citizens. It is only after the above two conditions have been fulfilled that a government is entitled to implement Islamic punishments on its land, and only then does the court gain the authority to judge a case according to its provisions.
And finally, any case that comes before the court for judgment must be investigated thoroughly and proper evidence brought before the court to satisfy all the requirements of Islamic law. Conviction is subject to strict conditions, which are most difficult to fulfill. This means that, in reality, the punishments are seldom carried out without the connivance of the criminal, and serve primarily as deterrents.

[1] «تَزَوَّجُوا، فَاِنَّ التَّزْوِيجَ سُنَّهُ رَسُولِ اللهِ (صلي الله عليه و آله وسلم)، فَاِنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ: مَنْ كَانَ يُحِبُّ اَنْ يَتَّبِعَ سُنَّتِي، فَاِنَّ مِنْ سُنَّتِي اَلتَّزْويِجَ۲»
وسایل الشیعه 4

The best among you in the sight of God is the most righteous

Prophet Muhammad (S) was sitting in the mosque in Madina giving a talk to some of his followers while they were waiting for Salaat time to set in. A rich man wearing expensive clothes came and sat in front of the Prophet (S) to listen to his speech. Meanwhile another man who had also came to listen to the Prophet (S) sat down beside the rich man. The second man was not rich, in fact he was quite poor. The old and torn clothes he was wearing showed just how poor he was. The rich man did not like for the poor man to sit next to him. He pulled his nice, new, expensive clothes closer to himself, so that they would not be touched by the old, torn clothes of the poor man.

The Prophet (S) noticed what the rich man had done and was annoyed and disappointed. He asked the rich man why he had acted in this manner. Was it because he thought that some of his wealth might go to the poor man, or was it because he thought some of the poverty of the poor man might come to him? The rich man, who was not a bad person, realized that what he had done was wrong and was truly sorry. To make up for his mistake and to show how sorry he was, he apologized to the poor man and offered him half of all his wealth.
The poor man told him that he accepted his apology and forgave him, but did not want half of his wealth. When he was asked why, he said he was afraid that his wealth might make him proud towards his fellow Muslims just like the rich man.1

A hadith from the prophet (s)

Do not get furious when something makes you angry. Sit down and remember how Allah is merciful and patient with us when we make him angry, although he has full power over us.2

1. Mutahhari, Daastan-e-Raastan
2. Tuhaf al-Uqul, p.14.

What corrupts the Tongue?

Talking in vain or uselessly

 Researchers in ethics say that there is a cause of corruption for everything. The tongue is not an exception to this. Many things will corrupt it. Talking in vein or uselessly is one of the causes of corruption of the tongue.

The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) said:

“One of the signs of goodness of a Muslim man’s submission to Allah (SWT) is avoiding vain talk.”

Ibn Abbas said:

Achieving the following five matters is more beneficial than owning the best types of horses:
(1) – Not involving yourselves in conversations that do not concern you, as there is no guarantee that you would not sin therein.
(2) – Not talking about things that do concern you, until you find the proper time; as a person may talk about a matter that does concern them but at the wrong time and therefore produce a bad consequence.
(3) – Not arguing with a wise or a foolish person, as the wise person would desert you and the foolish person would humiliate you.
(4) – Mentioning your brother, in his absence, with things with which you would wish him to mention you with in your absence and forgiving him for that which you would wish him to forgive you for.
(5) – Performing the actions of one who is certain that he would be rewarded for the good and punished for the bad that he does.

It is a fact that the majority of those who take the lead in vain talk during sinful gatherings talk so much that one who listens to them comes to realize that they themselves are not aware of what they are saying and that there is no thought process behind their words.

The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) said:

“No servants of Allah will be correct until his heart is corrected, and his heart will never be corrected until his tongue is.”

The first phase of achieving this correctness is for a person to give up that which does not concern them and not to involve themselves in things that they were not asked about.

Islam has dispraised frivolities and idle talk as they are immaterial and evil. In fact, the more a person stays away from them, the higher their rank becomes with Allah (SWT). Conversely, the more a person indulges in them, the more their punishment will be with Allah (SWT).

What is the best mustahabb (recommended) act a Muslim can do?

It is very hard to actually determine what the best mustahabb act is and we will explain why that is so:
Different actions have been considered the best mustahabb act in different hadiths.
Awaiting the help and aid of Allah (swt) [1] , prayer [2], sending salawat on the prophet (pbuh) and his progeny (as) [3], quenching the thirst of the thirsty [4], the love of Imam Ali (as) [5], making others happy [6], jihad [7], continuously doing a good deed [8], visiting the grave of Imam Husain (as) [9], night prayer (Salatul-Leil) [10], loving for Allah (swt) and hating for Allah (swt) [11], prayer on time and in the beginning of its time [12], doing good to your parents [13], feeding others [14], doing whatever is harder [15], etc.  Aside from these, there are hadiths that speak of some acts being the best because of a certain time or place factoring into them, such as doing something on Jum’ah (Friday) [16], in the holy month of Ramadan[17], on the night of the fifteenth of Sha’ban [18].

So what is the best mustahabb act one can do?

As you can see, there are many hadiths that speak of the best mustahabb act one can do; how can one draw a conclusion from all of them and find an explanation for why they have spoken of more than one “best act”?

1- Difference in the reasons behind them and the benefits they entail:

Each and every one of these acts that has been considered “the best”, has been considered so because of a certain reason and perspective; each of them has its own criteria for being “the best”.  For instance, certain reasons make the night prayer the best act, while others call for jihad to be the best. Take jihad for example, when the time for it comes, it is clearly the best act one can do and all other acts are inferior to it.  This is one way to explain how all of these acts can be “the best” at one time. It is because of not being able to solve the problem in this way that led to a portion of the adhan being omitted during the second khalifah’s time. They weren’t able to explain how prayer was “the best of all acts” and at the same time, jihad was also the best act of all, so they just ended up omitting the
حي علي خير العمل
part of the adhan altogether! [19]
Therefore, a difference in reasons and criteria can be a good way of explaining the true meaning of these hadiths. Some of them have very significant social benefits, such as jihad. Some of them bring along personal benefit, while a third group aren’t even actions and have to do with our beliefs, such as loving Imam Ali (as). Some hadiths haven’t even mentioned a specific action and have generally said the hardest act is the best of all acts. [20]

2- Difference of circumstances and situations:

Sometimes it is the situation the person is in that explains the variety seen in these hadiths. It was said above that the reasons behind different actions might make each of them “the best” act, so what mattered there was the action itself and the benefits it entailed, while here the thing that makes the difference doesn’t have to do with the act itself, it has to do with the circumstances the person is in, what time and place he is in and so on. This is also another way of explaining how these actions can be “the best” all at once. For instance, during the advent of Islam when the Muslims faced a rough time, or during the times when the Shia were under a lot of pressure, awaiting the help of Allah (swt) and not losing hope were the best of all acts and worship; the reason being that if the Muslims were to lose hope, everything would be jeopardized and would face elimination. The same goes with other actions that were mentioned above. Clearly, in normal conditions, jihad isn’t the best act for women.  The night prayer isn’t the best act for a person who has just embraced Islam and still hasn’t learned how to perform his daily prayers.


It can be deduced from all of these hadiths that there is no one best act in Islam. It can’t be said that under all circumstances and in all times such and such act is the best. As was mentioned, some of the acts that have been considered the best have different reasons behind them, while others become the best act as a result of certain circumstances. Nevertheless, those acts that have been mentioned in our hadiths are of the best acts out there.

[1] Biharul-Anwar, vol. 75, p. 208.
[2] Nouri, Mustadrakul-Wasa’el, vol. 4, p. 70.
[3] Mustadrak, vol. 5, p. 119.
[4] Mustadrak, vol. 5, p. 331.
[5] Mustadrak,vol. 5, p. 331.
[6] Wasa’ilul-Shia, vol. 14, p. 499.
[7] Muhammad ibn Yaqub Kulaini, Kafi, vol. 5, p. 9.
[8] Nouri, Mustadrak, vol. 1, p. 131.
[9] Wasa’ilul-Shia, vol. 14, p. 499.
[10] Mustadrak, vol. 6, p. 337.
[11] Mustadrak, vol. 12, p. 220.
[12] Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 98.
[13] Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, Biharul-Anwar, vol. 75, p.85.
[14] Wasa’ilul-Shia, vol. 24, p. 427.
[15] Biharul-Anwar, vol. 67, p. 191.
[16] Muhammad ibn Hasan Hurr Ameli, Wasa’ilul-Shia, vol. 7, p. 399.
[17] Wasa’ilul-Shia, vol. 10, p. 313.
[18] Muhammad ibn Hasan Sheikh Tusi, Misbahul-Mutahajjid, p. 829.
[19] Abdul-Husain Sharafuddin, Ijtihad dar Muqabele Nass, translation of Ali Davani, second chapter, 24th part.
[20]  Biharul-Anwar, vol. 67, p. 191.

What is the starting point for purifying the soul?

Purification means to clean your soul of impurity. The Quran has mentioned purifying the soul in various verses but one should know that the basis and starting point of purification varies from person to person. For a person that is not Muslim, the first essential step will be to convert to Islam.  For believers, it would be to become well aware of the necessity of purifying the soul. Clearly, pondering about why the world was created, what Allah’s objectives and purposes for creation were and why he appointed and sent the prophets and the like increase the notion of the need for purification.

The next stage is to repent from the past, make an effort to compensate for others’ rights he may have disregarded and to perform Allah’s (swt) commands which he has violated. Another step is to strive to abide by every obligation and prohibition one is aware of and to remain determined and persevere; this will result in Allah (swt) subsequently granting us additional knowledge which will help us in continuing our mission of the purification of our soul. Allah (swt) has given glad tidings by announcing his support for such servants that endeavor and struggle for his sake, and that he will strengthen them.

The concept of self-building has been referred to in the Quran as “purification” which means to cleanse the self from corruption and immorality.[1] Purification is of great importance in the viewpoint of the Quran, thus we read in Surah Shams:

To a happy state shall indeed attain he who causes this [self] to grow in purity, and truly lost is he who buries it [in darkness]. [2]

Verses 19 of Surah Al-Fatir and verses 14 and 15 of Surah Al-Aa’lah also emphasize on the same matter. So purifying the soul is considered a praiseworthy and encouraged act in Islam, but the starting point in purification differs from person to person.  For someone that is not a believer, converting to Islam is the first step required. According to akhlaq scholars these are the steps to purification: 1- Converting to Islam 2- Iman (Belief) 3- Immigration 4- Struggle for His cause. [3]

For one that has entered the safe fortress of Islam and is addressed by verses such as: “O you who believe, look out for yourselves” [4] and “O you who believe! Believe in Allah” [5], the first step is to become aware of the great significance of purification. After gaining this awareness the question: “Where should I start from?” comes to mind.  Actually, it can be said that the person with such a question has surely finalized the first step; because he has reached the conclusion through his own intellect and thinking that “this world is not a place to live forever and all of these resources and the prophets of God were not sent in vain so we could live a life ruled simply by our carnal desires”. [6]

After this level (awareness), it is time for repentance and to make up for what has been lost; making up for whatever rights we may have disregarded concerning both people and Allah (swt). However, repentance must definitely be accompanied by a strong decision. Repentance from the past and a strong decision to move ahead. Hence, some akhlaq scholars believe in repentance to be the second stage [7] while others say it is to make a strong decision. [8]
Imam Khomeini has a phrase relevant to this matter:

“Resolving not to commit haram acts and to perform the wajib ones and to make up for what has been lost and determination to become intellectual and religious on the outside”. [9]

In the supplication of the day of Maba’th it says:

“Therefore I recognized that the most significant provision for someone seeking you is the sole determination to only choose you.” [10]

The next step after that would be to avoid haram acts and perform the wajib ones.

Ayatollah Bahjat has said in reply to the question “I have the intention to purify my soul, but don’t know what I’m supposed to do?”,

“Avoiding the haram acts is more than enough and guaranteed to answer throughout your whole life, even if you are to live for a thousand years”. [11]

So in this stage we are supposed to avoid the haram acts and perform the wajib ones to the extent of our knowledge. This very sequence provides the ground for Allah (swt) to bestow his grace and mercy upon us by granting additional knowledge in order to proceed further in seeking his nearness. Our progress in purifying ourselves is determined by the capacity of knowledge we obtain. Thus as long as we keep our end of the deal and correspond to our knowledge, Allah (swt) will grant us more and the process will continue. In a narration from the prophet (pbuh), he says:

“Whoever does what he knows, God will teach him what he doesn’t know.” [12]

This hadith is completely in line with what the Quran says:

“As for those who strive hard in us (our cause), We will surely guide them to our paths” [13].

Another thing that should always be kept in mind is that in every moment we are in movement; either towards light (guidance) or darkness (misguidance), what is important is to guide this movement towards the right direction.
For further information, please refer to Sayyid Mohammad Hossein Hosseini Tehrani, Resaleye Lobbol-Lobab, vol. 1, p. 87.
One reminder is that the answer given above is for average individuals; if you are looking for a higher leveled answer, let us know, but also inform us about your educational degree.

[1] التزکية التطهير من الأخلاق الذميمة
Majma’ul-Bahrain, vol. 1, p. 203.
[2] قد افلح من زگيها و قد خاب من دسيها
[3] Seyyid Mohammad Hosein Hoseini Tehrani, Resaleye Lobbol-Lobab, p. 55.
[4] يا ايها الذين آمنوا عليکم انفسکم
[5] يا ايها الذين آمَنوا آمِنوا
[6] Imam Khomeini, Chehel Hadis (Forty Hadiths), p. 76.
[7] Mirza Javad Maleki Tabrizi, Resaleye Liqa’ullah, p. 52.
[8] Chehel Hadith, p. 7.
[9] Ibid.
[10] و لقد علمت افضل زاد الراحل اليک عزم ارادةيختارک بها
Mafatihul-Janan, The dua of the day of Mab’ath; Al-Iqbal bil-A’malil-Hasanah, p. 277.
[11] Be Suye Mahboub (Ayatullah Bahjat’s guidelines and prescriptions for self-building), p. 58.
[12] من عمل بما علم ورثه الله علم ما لا يعلم
Al-Mahajjatul-Beyda’, vol. 6, pg. 24; Biharul-Anwar, vol. 89, pg. 172; Al-Khara’ij, vol. 3, p. 1058.
[13] الذين جاهدوا فينا لنهدينهم سبلننا

Please inform me about evil spells. Do they possess any reality?

Even though spells aren’t superstitious and may have substantial effects, not every person has the power to cast spells. Moreover, most individuals who claim to have the knowledge of casting spells are bogus; they look at this skill as a tool to trick people and make money.
The best way to neutralize a spell is to seek refuge in Allah, rely on Him and recite certain surahs of the Quran, such as surahs Falaq and Nas.

The human being is a complex and complicated creature; he can do astonishing and unusual things. These actions originate from his material and spiritual dimension. One can perform a certain (material) action very quickly by practicing and constantly repeating it and getting used to it which can sometimes be unusual and surprising. Spiritually speaking, one can implement mental and spiritual forces to perform something extraordinary; spells being a good example of such.
Under the root TLSM, Majma’ Al-Bahrain writes: “There are three different points of view regarding the word telesm (spell): 1. It is a combination of the word tall, meaning effect, and the word ism (name). 2. A Greek word that means a knot that cannot be opened. 3. An anagram of the word musallat (dominant).” [1]
The author of “Kashaf Istilahat Al-Ulum wa Al-Funun” writes: “In the commentary of Tadhkirah, Abdul Ali Birjandi says:

“Telesm is an extraordinary action which originates from a metaphysical active force that is combined with impressionable material grounds to make an amazing and strange event come about; for in order for an event to spring the causal (metaphysical) aspect has special circumstances that are complemented by (material) capacity to accept such an effect. Therefore, whoever knows the circumstances of the cause and effect and can conjoint these two facets will be capable of performing strange and astonishing things. ” [2]

Therefore, first of all; metaphysical forces are used through material tools and methods to perform certain actions.
Second of all; casting spells isn’t simple and cannot be done by any individual. So it is important not to listen to everyone who claims they know it, because most of these people are opportunists simply looking to get money and trick people.
Third of all; casting spells is a reality and not superstitious. Ibn Sina believes that the cause of witchcraft and spells are strong spirits who cast them without using material tools, but in reality spells happen as a result of a somewhat connection between the spiritual and material dimensions of this world. He adds: “Extraordinary phenomenon take place in this world through these three sources:
A. Heiyat nafsani (one’s spiritual structure and dimension), B. The attributes of element objects; such as the attraction of iron by a magnet, C. Heavenly forces which create strange and outstanding effects when combined with material forces. Witchcraft is from the second category but the spell is from the first.” [3]

After bringing a similar definition to what Birjandi has, Shahid al-Awwal (The First Martyr) mentions:

“Spells are haram and making a living by this method is also haram.” [4]

Despite the substantial effect spells may have and the reality that it exists, it can also be broken. There are different ways in breaking spells.
Given the fact that God Almighty is the sole effective force in this world it is best to seek refuge in His mercy instead of trying to find our ways in spells, witchcraft and the like;

God suffices for anyone who puts his trust in Him. 5

God is sufficient as a trustee. 6

The true cause is Allah and surely the only cause. Even if spells and witchcraft have a real effect it is because God has made them a cause.

Therefore, the best way to neutralize a spell is to rely on the Great and Almighty God and seek refuge in His endless mercy. The Holy Quran says:

“And We reveal of the Quran that which is a healing and a mercy to the believers”. [7]

In order to stop the effects of spells and witchcraft reciting surahs Kafiroon, Ikhlas, Falaq and Nas is extremely helpful. Certain supplications have also been listed in dua books such as Mafatih Al-Jinan.

[1] Tarihi, Fakhruddin, Majma’ al-Bahrain, researched by Seyed Ahmad Hoseini, vol. 5, p. 107, al-Maktabah al-Murtadawiyyah.
[2] Tahanawi, Kashaf Istilahat al-Ulum wa al-Funun, vol. 2, p. 1138, Maktabah al-Lubnan, 1996.
[3] Sadr Hajj Seyed Jawadi et al., Da’iratul Ma’arefe Tashayyo’, vol. 9, p. 117, Shahid Sa’id Muhibbi Press, Tehran, 2002.
[4] Qummi, Sheikh Abbas, Safinah al-Bihar, vol. 4, p. 91, second edition, Daar al-Uswah, 1416 AH, quoted by al-Durus of Shahid I (The First Martyr).
[5] Talaq:3.
[6] Nisa’:81.
[7] Isra’:82

Which supplications are ones that are quickly answered and give one what he/she is asking for without much delay?

Many supplications or duas have been narrated by the infallible imams (as) that are considered of those that are quickly answered; here we will only list them without mentioning their texts:
1- The dua of Tawassul
2- The dua of Faraj
3- The dua of Ism A’dham
4- The dua of Muqatil bin Suleyman from Imam Sajjad (as)
5- A dua with the name of “Sari’ul-Ijabah” (which literally means ‘quickly answered’) by Imam Kadhim (as) which reads:
…اللهم اني اطعتک في احب الاشياء اليک و
6- A dua from Imam Sadiq (as); the imam (as) says whosoever says, “Ya Allah (ياالله)” ten times, will be told [by Allah (swt)]: “Here I am! What is your wish?”
7-Imam Sadiq (as) has been narrated saying: “Whosoever repeatedly says “Ya Rabb Ya Allah” until he runs out of breath, will be told: “Yes! What is your wish?!”
These duas have been mentioned in the book of Mafatihul-Jinan, under the title of “Quickly Answered Duas” or “Sari’ul-Ijabah Duas”.

Dua or supplication is a relationship out of need between the servant and his lord, for worldly and otherworldly needs.
Just like every other phenomenon, the answering of one’s supplication has conditions and formalities that when met and observed, will result in the answering of the dua, and in the case of the dua lacking them, or in the case of other barriers not allowing the dua to be answered that we aren’t aware of, even the best duas known for being answered quickly and certainly can be ineffective. Anyway, we can’t bring the text of the duas here, but we will list some of those known for being answered quickly:

1- The dua of Tawassul:

Muhammad ibn Babawayh (محمد ابن بابويه) has narrated this dua from the imams (as) and has said that whenever he would recite it for a certain matter, he would quickly see its results. This dua is a famous one that is recited on Tuesday nights. In this dua, one seeks a means of nearness to Allah (swt) through the fourteen infallibles and calls Him and at the end, asks Him to fulfill his need. The beginning and end of this dua is as follows:
…اللهم اني اسئلک و اتوجه النک بنبيک نبي الرحمة
(O Allah, I beseech Thee, and turn towards Thee, through Thy Prophet, the Prophet of Mercy)
يا وجيهاً عند الله اشفع لنا عند الله
(O intimate of Allah, Stand by us when Allah sits in judgement over us). [1]

2-The dua of Faraj:

In the book of Baladul-Amin, Kaf’ami narrates a dua from Imam Ali (as) that if one who is fearful of something, worried, devastated or surrounded by problem(s) recites, Allah (swt) will help and aid him; the beginning and end of this dua is as follows:
…يا عماد من لا عماد له
(O Support of the one who has no supporter…)
وافعل بي ما انت اهله
(Treat me the way that you like and are pleased with]) [2] and then the one reciting the dua asks for his wish.

3- In the book Kalem Tayyeb, Seyyid Alikhan Shirazi narrates: “The great name of Allah (swt) [the ism a’dham] is the one that starts with ‘Allah’ and ends with ‘Hu’ (هو); all matters, no matter how general or specific, will be made easy for whosoever repeats this name eleven times a day. That great name is five verses of the five surahs of: Baqarah, Ale-Imran, Nisa, Taha and Taghabun. The names in these five verses are the same in both not having any ‘dots’ and sharing the same vowels:
a) …الله لا اله الا هو الحي القيوم
until the end of Ayatul-Kursi.
b) …الله لا اله الا هو…نزل عليک الکتاب
c) …الله لا اله الا هو ليجمعنکم
d) …الله لا اله الا هو له الاسماء
e) [الله لا اله الا هو و علي الله… [3

4- The dua of Muqatil bin Suleyman from Imam Sajjad (as):

Muqatil says that Imam Sajjad (as) taught him a dua that whosoever recites one hundred times, will be answered. The beginning and end of this dua is as follows:
…الهي کيف ادعوک و انا
(O Lord, how can I call you while I am me…)
تفرج عني فرجا عاجلا غير اجل نفسک و رحمتک يا ارحم الراحمين
(grant me relief without delay out of your mercy and grace, O Most Merciful of all merciful)[4]

5- The dua of Sari’ul-Ijabah (quickly answered):

In Baladul-Amin, Kaf’ami narrates Imam Kadhim (as) about a dua that is answered quickly that begins and ends like so:
اللهم اني اطعتک في احب الاشياء اليک و هو التوحيد
(O Allah, I obeyed you in what pleases you the most, which is [belief in] your oneness)
و ارزقني من حنث احتسب و من حيث لا احتسبه، انک ترزق من تشاء بغير حساب
(Sustain by a means which I expect [you to sustain me through] and what I don’t expect).
After the dua closes, you make your wish to Allah (swt). [5]

6- Imam Sadiq (as) has been narrated saying that whoever says ‘Ya Allah’ ten times, will be answered [by Allah]: “Here I am! What is your wish?”.[6]

7-Imam Sadiq (as) has been narrated saying: “Whosoever says ‘Ya Rabb Ya Allah’ (O Lord, O Allah) as much as his breathe allows him, it will be said to him [by Allah]: “Here I am! What is your wish?”. [7]
All of these duas have been mentioned in the Mafatihul-Jinan of Sheikh Abbas Qummi, in the fifth chapter.
Of course, one thing that should be kept in mind is that for specific needs, there are specific duas from the imams (as) that you can learn more about by referring to the Mafatih.

[1] Mafatihul-Jinan, Dua Tawassul, p. 225.
[2] Ibid, Dua Faraj.
[3] Ibid, The verses of Ism A’dham, p. 224.
[4] Ibid, The dua of Muqatil bin Suleyman, p. 236.
[5] Mafatihul-Jinan, the dua of Sari’ul Ijabah, p. 237 and 754.
[6] Usul Kafi, the book of duas, chapter: Whoever says ‘Ya Allah’ ten times.
[7] Ibid, chapter: Whoever says ‘Ya Allah Ya Rabb’ until his/her breathe ends.

How does one get cleansed from sin?

There are many ways to receive forgiveness and pardon. We will mention a few of them here:
1. Repentance and rededicating oneself to the path of God (contingent upon its conditions).
2. Doing outstanding good deeds which cause forgiveness of sins.
3. Abstaining from the cardinal sins; this in turn results in the forgiveness of the lesser sins.
4. Tolerating the tribulations and misfortunes of this world, difficulty of the inter-world (Barzakh), and the initial trials of the Day of Judgment will help to eradicate one’s sins.
5. Intercession. Of course it must be taken into consideration that intercession is contingent upon the change and transformation of the sinner from his previous state and his having the necessary capacity for forgiveness and remission; in order for him to become cleansed from sins.
6. Divine forgiveness for individuals who are worthy and have met the necessary conditions; meaning for the “believers” (Mu’mineen) who have had some shortcomings or incompetence in their actions.

From numerous verses of the Holy Quran we can gather that there are various ways of attaining forgiveness and pardon of sin; of which here we will briefly mention some of them:

1. Repentance and rededicating oneself to the way of Allah, with sincere regret for past sins with a firm decision to refrain from future sin and practical compensation of bad deeds by doing good deeds. There are a number of Quranic verses which convey this, but in order to maintain brevity we will only mention one here:

It is He who accepts the repentance of His servants, and excuses their misdeeds and knows what you do. [1]

The genuineness of repentance lies in regret and remorse which necessitates a serious decision not to commit that sin again in the future, and of course compensation for those deeds (if possible). The same rule applies to saying “Astaghfirullah” (I seek forgiveness from Allah). Hence, the pillars of repentance can be summarized as five things: 1. no longer committing that sin 2. remorse 3. Decision not to repeat that sin in the future 4. Compensation of the past 5. Repentance. [2]

2. Doing extraordinary good deeds which cause forgiveness of bad deeds. Just as it states in the Quran:

Maintain the prayer at the two ends of the day, and during the early hours of the night. Indeed good deeds efface misdeeds. [3]

3. Abstaining from cardinal sins, which in turn cause the lesser sins to be forgiven.

If you avoid the major sins that you are forbidden, We will absolve you of your misdeeds, and admit you to a noble abode. [4-5]

4. Tolerating the tribulations and misfortunes of this world will lighten the burden of sins of the believers; just as the affliction in the inter-world (Barzakh), and the initial trials of the Day of Judgment will help to eradicate his misdeeds. [6]

5. Intercession: intercession is the complement of an elevated being toward a weaker being in order to help him. This could be to increase the strong points or to lessen the weak points. The concept of intercession from an Islamic and Quranic [7] standpoint revolves around the principle of change, transformation and amendment of the “interceded individual” this means that the person who is being interceded sets the groundwork and preparation so that he may prevent an undesirable chastisement; and by means of the interceder he puts himself in a more desirable position to receive and be worthy of forgiveness and clemency. Believing in this type of intercession, in actuality is a supreme level of soul-cultivation by which sinners can become amended and made more conscious. [8] According to the numerous traditions of “Maqam Mahmoud” (the rank of the praised one) which has been promised to the Noble Prophet (s) in the Holy Quran is the rank of intercession. The following Quranic verse indicates that divine pardon will transpire via Hazrat Muhammad (s) for those individuals who are worthy and deserving of it. Therefore, the greatest and final hope for sinning believers is intercession. From Islam’s view, intercession (along with its requirements) is one of the methods of graciousness and creating hope with the purpose of compensating for the shortcomings of a believer in order for him to become cleansed from sin and to exalt and elevate his position.

6. Divine forgiveness [9] is inclusive of worthy individuals; meaning the believers who, in their actions have had some shortcomings or have been contaminated with misdeeds. If these individuals are embraced by divine pardon then they will join those going to heaven, and if not then they will enter into the hellfire; however that will not remain their [permanent] place and station and they shall not be abandoned there forever. [10]

It should be reiterated that divine pardon/forgiveness is contingent upon His ordinance, and it is not just a general matter with no conditions or stipulations. His will and ordinance will only merge with those deserving individuals who have in some way proven their worth by their actions.
Therefore Allah, The Most High who is the creator of man and who is completely aware of his state of affairs, has recognized it as possible for one to become cleansed from all sins (even the cardinal sins), and He has invited everyone to reach that position and has given the promise of forgiveness, and has even considered hopelessness from divine pardon and clemency as the greatest sin. All of the divine prophets have been chosen by God to help people to reach the vast ocean of divine mercy; to the extent that the dear Prophet of Islam has been called the “Prophet of Mercy”.]

The point which we will expound on again here in conclusion is that if a believer maintains his faith until the time of his death and he does not commit any sins that would cause his downfall or misfortune, nor at his death does he die with doubt or disbelief – in other words if he dies with “Iman” (Belief); then he will not incur eternal punishment. His lesser sins will be pardoned by his abstaining from the cardinal sins and his cardinal sins will be pardoned by making complete and acceptable repentance. And if [for some reason] he never becomes successful in making such a repentance, then by tolerating the difficulties and tribulations of this world, and the severity of the inter-world, and the initial trials of the Day of Judgment, his sins will be exonerated. And if he were to still be contaminated by sins, then he may be saved from the punishment of the hellfire by means of intercession -the greatest and most vast manifestation of divine mercy which has been bestowed upon God’s Elite Saints, especially the Noble Messenger and his Noble Progeny (Peace and blessing be upon them). Nevertheless, at the same time one should never feel completely safe from “Allah’s scheme”, and they should always have fear that, lest they may have or will do something which will cause them misfortune or loss of faith during their time of death. And God-forbid the love of worldly things reaches a point where it infiltrates their heart, and they leave this world while subject to Allah the Most High’s abhorrence [11].

[1] Sura Shura – Verse 25
وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَقْبَلُ التَّوْبَةَ عَنْ عِبَادِهِ وَيَعْفُو عَنِ السَّيِّئَاتِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ
[2] Nemuneh Tafsir – Volume 24, p. 290
[3] Sura Hud – Verse 114
وَأَقِمِ الصَّلاَةَ طَرَفَيِ النَّهَارِ وَزُلَفًا مِّنَ اللَّيْلِ إِنَّ الْحَسَنَاتِ يُذْهِبْنَ السَّـيِّئَاتِ ذَلِکَ ذِکْرَى لِلذَّاکِرِينَ
[4] Sura Nisa – Verse 31
إِن تَجْتَنِبُواْ کَبَآئِرَ مَا تُنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ نُکَفِّرْ عَنکُمْ سَيِّئَاتِکُمْ وَنُدْخِلْکُم مُّدْخَلاً کَرِيمًا
[5] The study of Beliefs: Ayatollah Misbah Yazdi – p. 477
[6] The study of Beliefs: Ayatollah Misbah Yazdi – p. 481
[7] Sura Sajdeh – Verse 4; Sura Zumar – Verse 24; Sura Baqareh – Verse 255; Sura Saba – Verse 23&…
[8] Nemuneh Tafsir – Volume 1, p. 233
[9] Sura Shura – Verse 25
[10] Nemuneh Tafsir – Volume 26, p. 111
[11] The study of Beliefs: Ayatollah Misbah Yazdi – pp. 481 & 482

What is the difference between justice and equality?

Sometimes ‘justice’ is confused with ‘equality’ and it seems that the meaning of justice is that ‘equality should be maintained’, whereas this is not so. Equality is not a condition for justice. Rather, rights and priorities must be considered.

As an example, justice in a classroom of students is not that they all receive equal grades and justice between two workers is not that they receive equal wages. Rather, justice is for each student to be graded according to his knowledge and ability and each worker to be judged according to his work and activity.

In the world of nature, also, justice in the extensive sense means just this. If the heart of a whale, which weighs one ton, be compared to the heart of a sparrow, which is perhaps not more than one gram in weight, if they were equal, there would be no justice and if the roots of a very tall tree were equal to the roots of a small plant, this is not justice and is equivalent to oppression.
Justice is that every creature receives its rights in proportion to its abilities.

Ref: Fifty Lessons of Principles of Belief for Youths; Ayt. Makarem Shirazi; Translated by: Bahador Shirazian; Published by: Ahlul Bayt World Assembly

What are the most important characteristics of a citizen in Islamic society?

As the last divine religion, the enlightening school of Islam is the most complete and inclusive religion of all. Therefore, in Islam social rules and regulations have been considered just like as personal rules. Islam believes there are principles and rules a Muslim should observe in his social life and interactions in a society and the same in the liabilities s/he has against others and society in which s/he lives.
Some of the most important liabilities of a citizen in Islamic society are as follows:
1- Not trampling peoples’ rights (Hagh Al Naas) and respecting other citizens’ rights.
The emphasis of Islam on respecting the right of neighbors and passengers in the street can be considered as some examples of this.
2- Caring for other people and helping them when they are in need at the time of disasters (natural or non – natural)
As Islam instructs a citizen of Islamic society should try to solve political, cultural, economical and … problems in his society and should not be indifferent to natural disasters like unexpected happenings and moral calamities and social disorders.
3- Respecting Islamic moralities in social interactions such as: being nice and good tempered, being humble, patient and tolerating people.

The following preliminaries can help us reach the answers that we seek:

1- The human being is a social creature. In more precise terms we can say that he is “Social by Nature” 1. By studying history we also come to realize that human beings have lived socially and in groups from time immemorial.

2- As the final divine religion, Islam is the most complete and inclusive of all religions. Islam has rules and moral regulations for every aspect of human life. This can be divided into two sections. The first is that some rules and regulations instruct people on how to connect with God. The second set of regulations relate to how people are to behave and act with the people of their societies.

3- What is meant by Islam being comprehensive and inclusive is that general principles can be derived from its sources that lead us to the philosophy, framework and system of Islam 2, and allow us to come up with our own means and methods of carrying out its commands. 3

4- We believe that in the past, such as during the early days of Islam, there was no such concept of modern life that exists today. Naturally there were no modern day issues that exist in today’s world such as traffic jams, air pollution, and etc.. In order to have a viable model of a Muslim citizen, Islam has set rules and principles for those small cities and small groups of people who lived the traditional lifestyle. These rules are universal and should be observed in today’s social life and developed societies as well. In fact through these rules we achieve the characteristics of a true Muslim citizen.

Some of the most important characteristics and features of a Muslim citizen are:

1- Not trampling other peoples’ rights and respecting them

From Islam’s point of view, the basis of social life is respecting people’s social rights. Here are some examples: As for the neighbors, The Holy Prophet (s.a) said:

The scent of paradise will be Haram (here used to mean unattainable) for the one who bothers his neighbor.” 4


The one who disrespects his neighbor’s rights is not of us.” 5

One of the problems that exists today is blocking public throughways, an issue which has been acknowledged, explained, and forbidden to the followers of Islam 1400 years ago. The Holy Prophet (s.a) said in this regard:

Do not sit in the pathways” 6


Remove your possessions and belongings from the pathways and do not make it difficult for Muslims who wish to pass.” 7

Imam Ali (a.s) said:

Do not sit in the pathways” 8

Imam al-Sadiq (a.s) said:

The owner of any type of possession which blocks the pathway for Muslims and harms them is responsible for their loss and damage” 9

By using traditions, Imam Khomeini writes in his book of “Tahrirul Wasilah”: “If a person stands in a narrow passage or alleyway and there is no way to pass and a passing person collides with him, slips and then dies, the one who stands in the middle of the way should pay the blood money.” 10

Therefore, according to religious rulings, a Muslim citizen should not disregard other peoples’ right and should respect these rights.

2- A Sense of Responsibility and Commitment

The main feature of Islamic society can be seen in social responsibility, which is shared by every individual in that society. This common responsibility starts from the basic family unit and extends to neighbors, city, country, etc… According to Islamic rulings, a citizen in an Islamic society should try as far as he can to solve the problems of his society whether they are cultural, economical, or political in nature. This extends to natural disasters and other unexpected occurrences which take hold of society from time to time.

Here we refer to some examples of such responsibilities:

A – Helping Others
The Holy Quran considers helping others as a duty for each and every Muslim and says:

Verily those who believed, and emigrated and strove hard and fought with their property and their lives in the cause of Allah as well as those who gave them asylum and help, – these are all allies to one another. And as to those who believed but did not emigrate (O Muhammad), you owe no duty of protection to them until they emigrate; but if they seek your help in religion, it is your duty to help them except against a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance; and Allah is All – Seeing of what you do” 11


The believers are nothing else than brothers (in religion). So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allah, that you may receive mercy.” 12

Muslims are responsible for the problems and various other issues that happen to each other and if any given individual does not take this responsibility, according to various traditions, they will not be considered as a Muslim.

Whosoever wakes up while not caring about the issues of other Muslims, is not a Muslim.” 13

Imam Ali (a.s) considers each one of the citizens of an Islamic society responsible for the people of that society whether they are considered men of knowledge, men of wealth, etc. This means that in whatever way they are capable of they are duty bound to help their fellow man.

He says:

Before obliging the uneducated to learn, God has obliged the educated to teach.” 14

God has put the sustenance of the poor in the hands of the rich … and he will question the rich for this.” 15

Also helping the neighbors is of paramount importance.

Imam Ali (a.s) has said:

The Holy Prophet (s.a) emphasized the role of a neighbor so much that we thought neighbors would inherit the property of their fellow neighbors.” 16

In this regard we have the following quotation in Imam al-Sajjad’s treatise on rights (رسالة الحقوق):

A neighbor who is oppressed should be helped and treated kindly.” 17

B- The Promotion of Good and the Prevention of Evil. 18

Since the individual Muslim citizen is part of the masses which pushes the ship of society forward, he can’t be indifferent to social disorders. Not only can they not be indifferent but they must actively think about them and attempt to solve them. The example that can be given here is that society is akin to a group of people living on a ship. If one individual claims an area of the ship for himself and wishes to make a hole in it claiming that it is his right to do whatever he wishes in “his area” then the whole ship will sink with all the individuals. It is the duty of the rest of the passengers to stop him from harming both himself and the rest of the ship’s passengers. Promotion of good and prevention of evil in Islam is also pushed forward in this manner. Promotion of good and prevention of evil in Islam is among other religious obligations such as prayers and charity. It is considered a kind of Jihad and is an important factor in reaching perfection, restoring values and purifying the society from social disorders and evils.

God says in his book The Holy Quran:

And as for the believing men and the believing women, they are guardians of each other. They enjoin good and forbid evil….” 19

In another verse we have:

You are the best nation [ever] brought forth for mankind: you bid what is right and forbid what is wrong”. 20

Imam Ali (a.s) was a perfect example of a Muslim. He said:

Promotion of good and prevention of evil are two divine characteristics” 21.

He considers promotion of good and prevention of evil superior to all the prayers even Jihad in the cause of God.

While there is another group who stopped promoting good and preventing evil, these are walking dead people for whom there is no benefit in life, because all the good deeds – even Jihad in the cause of God – is nothing in comparison to promotion of good and prevention of evil…” 22

3- Respecting Islamic morality in social interactions

Having good morality and behaving well with people are among the most important factors of making progress and success in a society, it also helps to administer justice throughout society.
Here we refer to some Islamic points on social morality in society:

A- Being good tempered, behaving kindly and being cheerful

The Holy Quran addresses the Holy Prophet (s.a):

And verily, you (O Muhammad) are on an exalted (standard of character).” 23

And by the mercy of Allah, you dealt with them gently. And had you been severe and hard hearted, they would have broken away from about you; so pass over (their faults), and ask (Allah’s) forgiveness for them; and consult them in the affairs. Then when you have taken a decision, put your trust in Allah, certainly, Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him)” 24

Therefore The Quran considers the good temper of the Holy Prophet as the main factor for the attraction of people towards Islam. There are many traditions from the Infallibles (a.s) on this subject. Here are some examples:

The Holy Prophet (s.a) said:

Someone who is good tempered fulfils half of his religious duties”. 25

Imam al-Sadiq (a.s) quotes from the Prophet (s.a) where he said:

Belief is the same as being good tempered”. 26

Imam Ali (a.s) has said about being well behaved and cheerful:

The most perfect people are the ones who are good tempered”. 27

Imam al-Sadiq (a.s) said:

Doing good for the people and being good tempered cultivates the lands and advances society.” 28

It can be said that behaving well and having the correct attitude towards citizens in all levels and classes of society, especially with guests, strengthens the social ties and solves many social illnesses. In many cases it also prevents problems such as nervous and mental disorders. For these reasons being good tempered is highly recommended in Islam.

B- Humility:

Humility means being humble, modest and well behaved towards people and the avoidance of being arrogant and selfish. Humility is one of the characteristics within human beings that can be seen in their actions. Certainly humility towards people makes the one with this characteristic admired in the society and also brings about God’s pleasure in the afterlife. This is a matter stressed on by the ‘Awliya Allah’ to the people.
Imam Ali (a.s) said:

Showing humility and modesty while being at a high rank and status is the same as forgiving someone when you are in power.” 29

Modesty completes the blessings.” 30

Certainly humbleness takes human beings to a high rank, thus be humble and God may bless you.” 31

In the Holy Quran humility and modesty are indicated as features of the righteous servants of God:

And the (faithful) servants of the Most Gracious (Allah) are those who walk on the earth in humility, and when the ignorant address them (with bad words) they say: “Peace” 32

C- Friendship and Tolerance

Friendship and tolerance means treating people mildly. Since human beings live socially, they are always connected to others. In some ways their rights overlap with the rights of other people. Therefore, tolerance is one of the issues Islam has taken into consideration. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s) has quoted the Holy Prophet (s.a) as saying:

As God has ordered me to fulfill my religious obligations He also ordered me to be tolerant towards people.” 33

He also said:

Someone who acts tolerantly with people has achieved half of his faith and making friendship with people is half of life.” 34

Islam recommends treating people, even enemies, mildly. In this regard, we have the Quran’s recommendation to Moses and Harun:

When you go to Pharaoh, talk to him gently so that he may fear and be guided.” 35

Imam Ali (a.s) described the characteristics of a believer in a part of his speech saying that:

A believer is calm and flexible, stronger than a stone and at the same time as humble as a slave. 36

D- Patience

Patience means to stand firm against the problems of life. Social life means living with other people and knowing different attitudes and tastes, various ways of thinking and ideologies. Thus, being patient is one of the first requirements of social life. This is the characteristic of all of the Prophets of God (a.s) at the times when they encountered the difficulties and troubles caused by the idolaters.

Imam Ali (a.s) considers patience as one of the Godly characteristics saying:

Praise belongs to the Lord whose patience is so much that He forgives our sins.” 37

Imam Ali (a.s) also said:

One, who is patient, avoids negligence and is appreciated by people.” 38

The very first gift a patient person receives is the people’s support against the negligent.” 39

A citizen of an Islamic society is patient with the difficulties of life. He always gets help from his religious training and these words from Imam Ali (a.s) which said:

The pious spend their days having patience for the shortcomings and difficulties of life.” 40

A citizen in an Islamic society needs to have these characteristics as well.

We can conclude by saying that the purpose of canonizing the social rules is to strengthen social life, to respect people’s rights and to prevent society from destroying itself. To establish a moral system in a society, moral issues must be taken into consideration. Everyone in society should try, through continuous training and struggle, to make a realization of moral values as a culture viable. We should try to establish and become accustomed to these features and moral characteristics of life and society in order to have a purified society. Having everyone take part in the dissemination of this strain of social morality will lead to a purified and humanitarian society.

[1] For more information refer to the translation of Al Mizan, Volume 2 P. 177
[2] For getting familiar with these concepts refer to the economic school and system of Islam, Hadavi Tehrani, Mehdi p. 19 – 51
[3] It should be noted that understanding the elements of the world and reaching the philosophical school and system of Islam is done through a jurisprudential method and this is the Jurisprudents job. However, in planning for this social scientists play an important role. Planning, describing the facts, proposing possible suggestions and putting all these into action in the physical world are among the duties of social scientists. Interpretation of religious texts for studying the elements of the outside world is the responsibility of the Jurisprudents. Also management, creating synthesis between elements of the universality of the Islamic System and modern times is the responsibility of the Jurisprudent. The Economic school and System of Islam, Hadavi Tehrani P. 44
[4] Majlesi, Mohammad Baqir, Bihar Al Anwar, Vol. 72, “Men Azi Jareh Haram Allah Alayhe Rabhe Janat.”
[5] Ibid. Volume 71 P. 150 “…. Men Zaye hagh jare falaysa mena.”
[6] اياکم و الجلوس علي الطرقات
Naraghi, Mohammad Mehdi, Jaame al Sadat, Volume 2 P. 238.
[7] اعزل الاذي عن طريق المسلمين
hendi, Aladdin Ali, Konzo al emal, Volume 15, P. 781
[8] Moadikhah, Abd al Majid, The Everlasting Sun (Translation of Nahjul Balagah) P. 380, Letter 69. “Iyaka va Moghaed al savagh”
[9] Hor Ameli, Mohaamd bin Hassan, Vasayel Alsh
[10] Khomeini, Seyed Ruhollah, Tahrir al Wasilah, Volume 2, P. 562
[11] Surah Anfal, Verse 72
[12] انما المومنون اخوة … الخ
Hejrat, 10
[13] Kulaini, Usulal Kafi, Volume 2. P. 131
من اصبح و لا يهتم بامور المسلمين، فليس بمسلم
[14] Moadikhah, Abd al majid, the everlasting sun (Translation of Nahjul Balagah), P. 522
ما اخذ الله علي اهل الجهل ان يتعلموا حتي اخذ علي اهل العلم ان يعلموا
[15] ان الله سبحانه فرض في اموال الاغنياء اقوات الفقراء… الخ
Ibid, P. 479
[16] Al Kafi Volume. 7 Page 51 Bihar al Anwar Volume. 42, P. 248.
[17] Ibid, Volume 71 page 7
… و نصرته اذا کان مظلوماً…و تعاشره معاشرة کريمة
[18] Promotion of the good and the prevention of Evil.
[19] المومنون و المومنات بعضهم اولياء بعض، يأمرون بالمعروف و ينهون عن المنکر
Surah Tawbeh, Verse 71
[20] Surah Ale-Imran, Verse 110
کنتم خير امة اخرجت للناس تأمرون بالمعروف و تنهون عن المنکر
[21] Moadikhah, Abdulmajid, everlasting sun (translation of Nahjul Balagah) Page 177, 178
… و ان المر بالمعروف و النهي عن المنکر لخلقان من خلق الله سبحانه
[22] Ibid, P. 494
[23] انک لعلي خلق عظيم
Surah Qalam, Verse 4
[24] Surah Aale Imran, Verse 159
فبما رحمة من الله لنت لهم و لو کنت فظاً غليظ القلب لانقضوا من حولک
الخلق الحسن نصف الدين
[25] Majlesi Mohammad Bagher, Biharal anwar Volume 68 Page 385
[26] الليمان حسن الخلق…الخ
Ibid, P. 392
[27] Ibid
[28] Hor Aameli, Mohammad bin Hassan, Wasayel Al Shia, Volume 5, P. 504
البر و حسن الملق يعمرن الديار……الخ
[29] التواضع مع الرفعة کالعفو مع القدرة
Ghurarul-Hikam, p.405
[30] و بالتواضع تعم النعمة
Moadikhah, Abd almajid, The Everlasting Sun (Translation of Nahjul Balagah) P.448,
[31] Naraghi, Mohammad Mehdi, Jame al Saadat, Volume 1 P. 363
[32] و عباد الرحمن الذين يمشون علي الارض هوناً
Surah Furqaan,Verse 63
[33] Hor Aameli, Mohammad bin Hassan, Wasailal Shia, Volume 8, P. 540
[34] Ibid
[35] Surah Taha, Verse 44, an important point in this verse is that in many cases, oleration guides even the harshest of enemies through allowing them to seeing the beauty of Islamic morals and ethics.
[36] Moadikhah, Abd al Majid, The Everlasting Sun (Translation of Nahjul Balagah) P. 481
[37] الحمد لله…الذي عظم حلمه فعفا… الخ
ibid, P.275, Line 233
[38] Ibid, Page 395
[39] Ibid, Page 444
[40] و اما النهار، فحلماء علماء…الخ
Ibid P. 221, Line 184